Top Technical Bible Commentaries

Technical commentaries differ from other commentaries in a few ways: (1) They devote significant to space to discussion of technical matters related to the original languages of the Bible – Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic. People who read and use technical commentaries have training in the original languages. (2) Technical commentaries often value interacting with the latest scholarship as it relates to technical matters, but they are also interested in the latest scholarship regarding topics such as authorship, date of composition, and original audience. (3) They mostly do include practical helps such as preaching tips, devotional insights, or application suggestions.

Since technical commentaries can cost more than other commentaries, and they can take more time to read and understand, it’s helpful to know what theological approach to Scripture the author adopts before an investment is made in a book. One way to summarize the positions on inerrancy, which are used in the list below, is: (1) absolute inerrancy: the author assumes the truthfulness of Scripture in all it affirms; (2) full inerrancy: the author assumes the truthfulness of Scripture in all it affirms, yet considers the possibility of errors on minor matters of history, science, and perhaps other non-doctrinal issues; (3) moderate-critical: the author assumes the total truthfulness of matters concerning faith and practice only; (4) liberal-critical: author believes Scripture can, and does, contain errors; author may also be critical about matters that Scripture affirms, doctrinal or otherwise.1

The labels below are color-coded for the purposes of grouping similar approaches.

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New Testament Technical Commentaries


Matthew

W. Davies and D. Allison – International Critical Commentary | moderate-critical

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Donald Hagner – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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John Nolland – New International Greek Testament Commentary | liberal-critical

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Mark

Craig Evans – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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R.T. France – New International Greek Testament Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Robert Gundry – Eerdmans | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Luke

Darrell Bock – Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Francois Bovan – Hermeneia | liberal-critical

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John

Craig Keener – Hendrickson | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Andreas Kostenberger – BECNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Acts

C.K. Barrett – International Critical Commentary | moderate-critical

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Darrell Bock – Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Ben Witherington – Eerdmans | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Romans

C.E.B. Cranfield – International Critical Commentary | moderate-critical

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Douglas Moo – NICNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Thomas Schreiner – BECNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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1 Corinthians

Gordon Fee – NICNT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Anthony Thiselton – New International Greek Testament Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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2 Corinthians

Paul Barnett – NICNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Murray Harris – NIGTC | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Galatians

F.F. Bruce – New International Greek Testament Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Richard Longenecker – Word Biblical Commentary | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Ephesians

Ernest Best – International Critical Commentary | moderate-critical

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Harold Hoehner – Baker | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Philippians

Markus Bockmuehl – Hendrickson | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Gordon Fee – NICNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Peter O’Brien – NIGTC | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Colossians

Robert McL. Wilson – International Critical Commentary | liberal-critical

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Peter O’Brien – Word Biblical Commentary | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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1-2 Thessalonians

Abraham Malherbe – Anchor Bible | moderate-critical

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Charles Wanamaker – NIGTC | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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1-2 Timothy, Titus

Luke Timothy Johnson – Anchor Bible  | moderate-critical

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I. Howard Marshall – International Critical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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William Mounce – Word Biblical Commentary | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Phillip Towner – New International Commentary on the New Testament | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Philemon

Robert McL. Wilson – International Critical Commentary | liberal-critical

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Peter O’Brien – Word Biblical Commentary | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Hebrews

Luke Timothy Johnson – Old Testament Library | moderate-critical

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William Lane – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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James

Peter Davids – NIGTC | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Patrick Hartin – Sacra Pagina| moderate-critical

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Luke Timothy Johnson – Anchor Bible | moderate-critical

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1 Peter

Karen Jobes – Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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J. Ramsey Michaels – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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2 Peter-Jude

Richard Bauckham – Word Biblical Commentary | moderate-critical

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1-3 John

I. Howard Marshall – NICNT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Revelation

Robert Mounce – NICNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Grant Osborne – BECNT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Stephen Smalley – InterVarsity Press | moderate-critical

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Old Testament Technical Commentaries


Genesis

Victor Hamilton – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Gordon Wenham – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Exodus

Brevard Childs – Old Testament Library | liberal-critical

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Cornelius Houtman – Historical Commentary on the Old Testament | liberal-critical

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Leviticus

John Hartley – NICOT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Jacob Milgrom – Anchor | moderate-critical

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Numbers

Timothy Ashley – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Jacob Milgrom – Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary | moderate-critical

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Deuteronomy

Peter Craigie – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Gordon McConville – Apollos Old Testament Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Joshua

Marten Woudstra – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Judges

Robert Boling – Anchor | liberal-critical

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Ruth

Frederic Bush – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Robert Hubbard – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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1-2 Smauel

David Tsumura – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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1 Samuel

Ralph Klein – Word Biblical Commentary | moderate-critical

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2 Samuel

Kyle McCarter – Anchor Bible | liberal-critical

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1 Kings

Mordechai Cogan – Anchor Bible | moderate-critical

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2 Kings

T.R. Hobbs – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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1-2 Chronicles

Sara Japhet – Old Testament Library | moderate-critical

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1 Chronicles

Roddy Braun – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Ralph Klein – Hermeneia | moderate-critical

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Gary Knoppers – Anchor Bible | moderate-critical

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2 Chronicles

Raymond Dillard – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Ezra and Nehemiah

Ralph Klein – Abingdon | liberal-critical

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H.G.M. Williamson – Word Biblical Commentary | moderate-critical

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Esther

Frederic Bush – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Michael Fox – Eerdmans Critical Commentary | liberal-critical

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Job

David Clines – Word Biblical Commentary | liberal-critical

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John Hartley – NICOT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Psalms

P. Craigie, M. Tate, L. Allen – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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John Goldingay – BCOTWP | full inerrancy | evangelical

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F. Hossfeld and E. Zenger – Hermeneia | liberal-critical

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Proverbs

Michael Fox – Anchor Bible | liberal-critical

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Tremper Longman – BCOTWP | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Bruce Waltke – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Ecclesiastes

Thomas Kruger – Hermeneia | moderate-critical

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Roland Murphy – Word Biblical Commentary | liberal-critical

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Choon-Leong Seow – Anchor | moderate-critical

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Song of Songs

Duane Garrett – Word Biblical Commentary | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Richard Hess – BCOTWP | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Tremper Longman – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Isaiah

John Goldingay – International Critical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Alec Motyer – InterVarsity Press | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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John Oswalt – New International Commentary on the Old Testament | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Hugh Williamson – International Critical Commentary | moderate-critical

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Jeremiah

Jack Lundbom – Anchor Bible | moderate-critical

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Louis Stulman – Abgindon | moderate-critical

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J.A. Thompson – NICOT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Lamentations

Paul House – Word Biblical Commentary | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Iain Provan – Sheffield | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Ezekiel

Leslie Allen – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Daniel Block – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Margaret Odell – Smyth and Helwys Bible Commentary | moderate-critical

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Daniel

John Collins – Hermeneia | liberal-critical

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John Goldingay – Word Biblical Commentary | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Hosea

A.A. MacIntosh – ICC | moderate-critical

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Joel

Leslie Allen – NICOT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Amos

Shalom Paul – Hermeneia | moderate-critical

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Obadiah

Leslie Allen – NICOT | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Paul Raabe – Anchor | full inerrancy | evangelical

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Jonah

Jack Sasson – Anchor | liberal-critical

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Micah

F. Andersen and D. Freeman – Anchor | moderate-critical

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Nahum

J. Roberts – Old Testament Library | liberal-critical

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Klaas Spronk – Historical Commentary on the Old Testament | liberal-critical

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Habakkuk

Francis Andersen – Anchor | moderate-critical

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Zephaniah

Marvin Sweeney – Hermeneia | moderate-critical

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Haggai

Carol and Eric Meyers – Anchor | liberal-critical

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Zechariah

Carol and Eric Meyers – Anchor | liberal-critical

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Malachi

Andrew Hill – Anchor | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Pieter Verhoef – NICOT | absolute inerrancy | evangelical

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Footnotes:

1. The terms “absolute inerrancy” and “full inerrancy” are from Millard Erickson’s Christian Theology. P. 248.